Exotic skin is a term used to describe most types of leather that are used as an alternative to cow hide such as snakeskin, alligator, or even ostrich. Exotic skins are both rarer than cow leathers as well as much more expensive. As such, it can be quite an investment when looking to buy exotic skin shoes.
Therefore, this guide will present you with our top 10 list of the Best Exotic Skin Shoe Brands:
- Ascot Shoes, Hungary
- Carmina, Mallorca
- Antonio Meccariello, Italy
- Gaziano Girling, England
- Altan Bottier, Italy
- George Cleverley, England
- Belvedere Shoes, Italy
- John Lobb, France
- Paul Parkman, Turkey
- Enzo Bonafè, Italy
You can use the links to jump ahead or scroll down to read more. You can also learn more about the different types of exotic skins and their properties.
Belvedere Exotic Skin Shoes
What Are The Best Exotic Skin Shoe Brands?
Following the below menus, we’ll explore the top 10 best shoemakers that specialise or work with exotic skins. Each of them were individually researched, contacted, and tested when possible. Furthermore, please bear in mind that they aren’t necessarily featured in any particular order of preference.
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Founded by Karl Chu, Ascot Shoes represents László Vass in the United Kingdom. However, the brand differentiates itself from Vass’ usual line-up by specialising in exotic skins.
Operating from its Savile Row boutique, the shoes are made in Vass’ Hungarian workshop and often feature distinctive ornaments such as split toes and moccasin stitching.
If you’re looking for a specific exotic skin, Ascot also offers a made-to-order service where you can design a shoe alongside Karl or one of his assistants.
The product of six generations of shoemakers, Carmina was founded in 1997 by José Albaladejo. His grandfather, Matías Pujadas owned a workshop in Inca in the late 19th Century while his father, Matteo, established one of Mallorca’s first factories that specialised in Goodyear welted shoes.
Today, Carmina produces refined Goodyear-welted shoes from its Inca factory and also offers a made-to-order service for custom shoes. They’re also an excellent choice for exotic skins with a carefully selected range of alligator, lizard, crocodile, and a number of others.
A master craftsman that was born into shoe-making, Antonio Meccariello offers exquisite bespoke, made-to-order, and ready-to-wear shoes. After launching Kiton in partnership with Ciro Paone and Antonio de Matteis, he sold his shares only two years later so he could return to his own workshop.
Meccariello offers a rich yet carefully selected range of exotic skins that are sourced from celebrated sources including the Annonay and Puy tanneries. These luxurious skins can be incorporated into his made-to-order and custom shoes for an additional fee.
One of our favourite English shoemakers, Gaziano Girling is an excellent source if you’re looking for some of the richest and most refined exotic skins. Founded by Tony Gaziano and Dean Girling in 2006, the brand was established as a platform to experiment with unique designs.
Consequently, exotic skins is something of a speciality and can be seamlessly incorporated into their elegant and contemporary last shapes. That said, it’s unlikely that you’ll find exotic skins available in their ready-to-wear collection and you’ll likely have to request a made-to-order shoe instead.
Turkish artisan, Sukru Sensozlu, had been training to make shoes at only 11 years old. When he was old enough, he travelled to Paris to continue his studies under celebrated Parisian shoemakers. After several years as an apprentice, he established his own bespoke shoe workshop in 1973.
Although a renowned French brand, their elegant yet contemporary luxury footwear is now crafted in Italy. Meanwhile, the brand has operated since 2012 from its new boutique in Paris.
Altan Bottier offers an extensive selection of shoes that range from as little as 720€ to over 6,000€. While they are part of a ready-to-wear range, they’re actually made-to-order so you’ll have to wait for them to be manufactured.
Therefore, you might as well take advantage of customising them in the process!
A celebrated English brand and one of the last London-based shoemakers, George Cleverley has been family-run business since it was founded in 1958. Nowadays, it is run by the father-and-son team of George Jr and George Glasgow Snr.
Needless to say, the shoemaker doesn’t offer ready-to-wear exotic skin shoes. Therefore, these will have to be at least made to order. Meanwhile, George Cleverley specialises in luxury bespoke shoes so you can be sure to get exactly what you want by opting for this service.
Founded by Florence native, Stefano “Gator Man” Giovacchini, Belvedere is named after the famous Medici castle in his home town. His brand specialises purely in exotic skin ready-to-wear shoes.
There’s a rich selection of hides including alligator, eel, shark, and string ray, that are offered at extremely competitive prices. However, it’s important to bear in mind that they’re so affordable because of the cheaper, cemented, construction processes used to make them.
Therefore, Belvedere is a good choice if you’re just looking for some premium exotic skins at an affordable price and you’re not overly concerned by the construction.
Hermès acquired the Parisian boutique and brand name from London shoemaker in 1976. From that point on, the John Lobb Ltd in London was completely different from the one operating in France with boutiques around the world.
While their ready-to-wear shoes are benchmade in a Northampton factory, all their custom shoes are handcrafted in their Parisian workshop. Given John Lobb’s relationship with Hermès, it has unprecedented access to luxury leathers from only the most reputed sources.
Furthermore, John Lobb has its own special supply references and doesn’t exclusively use Hermès sources. Therefore, if you’re looking for unique and rare exotic skins, John Lobb is a phenomenal choice.
Although an American brand, Paul Parkman offers exquisite handmade shoes from Turkey at a surprisingly affordable price. They’re quite similar to Maglieriapelle, another brand that we’ve reviewed on several occasions.
There is a host of hand-painted exotic skin options, which offer excellent value compared to most brands. Furthermore, the hand patina beautifully accentuates the exotic leather’s texture with a rich finish.
Despite its long history, Enzo Bonafè continues to run his company after establishing it back in 1963. Today, he runs the brand alongside his wife, children, and son-in-law.
Enzo Bonafè offers a variety of exotic skins. However, the brand specialises mostly in crocodile and has mastered the characteristics of its skin.
Finally, Enzo Bonafè doesn’t sell their ready-to-wear shoes directly but wholesales to retailers. In the USA, there are a number of boutiques in New York and California that stock their premium footwear.
What Is Exotic Skin Leather?
While there are a few exceptions such as Cordovan and Calfskin, exotic skin will usually be used to mean any type of leather that hasn’t been sourced from cowhide. However, the term hasn’t been standardised by either the leather or shoe industry. Therefore, it can be somewhat vague.
For instance, leathers derived from sheep, goat, and pigs may sometimes be referred to as exotic. While there are certain breeds of wild swine where this may be the case, the aforementioned animals account for over 30% of worldwide leather production.
Meanwhile, exotic skins should represent only less than a percent to earn the term. Overall, exotic skins consist of relatively rare animal species or from rarely used skin parts of animals. For instance, chicken legs can also be considered a form of exotic leather! Needless to say, these are too small for shoes…
Furthermore, exotic skin will often imply that the leather is sourced from wild and undomesticated animals. Nevertheless, there are a number of farms that specialise in exotic skins in order to control both the quality and sustainability of their sourcing.
Finally, there is often doubt cast onto the ethics of exotic skin. Indeed, there are some instances were the animals are only sourced for their skins while the rest is discarded.
Fortunately, there are international bodies that regulate and protect species from unsustainable exploitation.
Convention of International Trade In Endangered Species
Established in 1973 as the Washington Convention on Species Protection, the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) enforces the use of exotic skins.
Firstly, CITES regulates and traces the exportation of live and dead endangered animals as well as their parts and derivatives through a system of certification. Therefore, the trade and shipping of skins requires CITES export permits.
In order to obtain the certification, the skins much be from legal specimens under a management authority. Similarly, the way they were acquired must not be considered detrimental to the species’ survival according to a scientific authority.
Furthermore, the transport conditions of live animals is regulated to prevent inhumane conditions.
CITES works alongside farms, distributors and exporters as well as manufacturers to deter and detect unreported trade. Likewise, it collaborates with government agencies and other international organisations to reduce illegal practices.
As a result, CITES is a key player in protecting wildlife while ensuring that the exotic skins in circulation are legally sourced. However, it doesn’t necessarily guarantee that the farming practices of legal establishments are quite as ethical as we may hope.
Different Varieties Of Exotic Skin Leather
In this section of the guide, we will explore a sample of the myriad of exotic skins available on the market. We’ve tried to offer as much detail as possible in a single guide so it serves as a full introduction to the mysterious and elusive world of exotic leather.
As this section is particularly long, you can use the following menu to help you navigate:
- Exotic Reptile Skins
- Exotic Mammal & Bird Leathers
- Exotic Sea & Fish Skins
Exotic Reptile Skins
Reptile skin is probably the most popular choice of exotic leather and usually the variety most associated with the term. Not only are reptiles rare and strictly enforced but they’re also challenging leathers to process.
Many varieties of reptiles are illegal and only a few species can be farmed for their skins. In most cases, they are also exclusively farmed for their skin and it’s rare that other derivatives have other uses. The only exception to this may be crocodile and alligator meat as we’ll explain below.
Consequently, their skins are expensive as breeders can only rely on this as their source of income.
When it comes to crafting goods from reptile leather, the greatest challenge is achieving a certain level of symmetry. Given that the scales can often be somewhat irregular and unique to every hide, this is very difficult with shoes.
With this in mind, it quickly becomes an expensive exercise to carefully select small parts of hides that aren’t too different when making shoes. Therefore, sometimes it can be more popular to only have only reptile accents on otherwise calfskin shoes.
If you just want to read about a single, specific reptilian skin, you can use this quick menu to jump ahead:
Crocodile & Alligator Skin
Crocodiles have been protected in the wild by CITES since the 1970s. Therefore, both can now only legally be farmed for their skins. Meanwhile, alligators and caimans are subspecies of crocodile whose skins are highly desirable in the leather industry.
Before the introduction of CITES, the alligator population fell considerably. However, this has since risen from 100,000 alligators to 1.5 million in the USA alone.
Only the belly of the crocodile is used for leather as the armoured back is too hard to process. Given that crocodiles are often only farmed for their skins, they’re far more expensive than most other leathers.
That said, both crocodile and alligator meat are indeed edible and considered a delicacy in both parts of the USA and Asia. A staple in traditional Creole, Australian and Thai cuisine, its mild flavour and light texture is also very healthy with its high protein and low carbohydrate composition.
However, crocodile and alligator meat consumption is comparatively low compared to the demand in the skin so the industry is somewhat disproportionate.
Despite the strict regulations that are enforced by CITES, PETA still considers the practice inhumane. However, crocodile farms based in Vietnam have faced the most criticism, which highlights the importance of sourcing skins from reputed breeders.
One of the most renowned breeders, the Darwin Crocodile Farm, can be found in Australia and has more than 70,000 crocodiles on-site. Meanwhile, 500,000 alligators are bred in the USA with 85% coming from Louisiana.
How To Tell The Difference Between Crocodile & Alligator Leather
Both alligator and crocodile skins are visually very similar and consist of tile-like scales arranged in uniform rows. However, there are some slight differences when closely inspected.
Firstly, crocodile scales are more uniform than alligator. If you were to look at an entire stomach hide, you would notice that each side is almost symmetrical. Consequently, crocodile is somewhat cheaper as it’s easier to craft symmetrical shoes from the skin.
Furthermore, you may notice that each crocodile scale has a small dot in the centre. Referred to as pores, these are hair follicle roots that were removed during the tanning process.
Meanwhile, alligator leather features tiles that are much more irregular with a prominent umbilical scar. In fact, this is the main reason that it is so costly as less can be easily used.
Like crocodile leather, there are many varieties of snake that are now protected by CITES. For instance, cobra used to be a popular skin for leathers, which is now internationally prohibited.
Typically, most snakeskin will be sourced from legal varieties of python that are usually farmed to a large enough size to be used for shoes. Meanwhile, anaconda is another popular variety of snake with a different arrangement of scales.
As anaconda is not protected, it is quite easy to acquire from South America. Furthermore, it’s an extremely large variety of snake as you can imagine. As such, a single anaconda can provide a greater quantity of leather. However, they are hunted in the wild so the pelts may feature some natural scarring.
Unlike crocodile and snake, lizards have relatively simple skins to tan into leather. As they’re naturally supple without any armour, it’s much easier to extract larger surface areas. Similarly, their scales aren’t are delicate as snakes, which avoids any issues that may arise when processed.
Most skins are sourced from Monitors, which is a general term used to describe 79 species of tropical lizards. Meanwhile, Teju is a highly desirable lizard for its skin given its unique pattern and scale system. As it can grow up to 1.5 metres in length, the hides are also quite large.
Exotic Mammal & Bird Leathers
Although connoisseurs will release that exotic skins can be sourced from mammals just as much as reptiles, they’re often overlooked by those who are less familiar with the tanning industry.
In fact, there are a plethora of different skins and leathers throughout the animal kingdom with some that can be quite surprising.
After all, we’ve been tanning leather since about 7,000 BC!
Some of the species and varieties of leather listed below are regarded as quite common in some countries. Alternatively, others are so exotic that they are even endangered or illegal.
In this section, we’ll be exploring the following mammal and bird skins:
- Antelope & Kudu
- Carpincho & Peccary Pig
- Horse & Cordovan
- Russian Reindeer
- Other Mammals
Antelope & Kudu Skin Leather
In Africa, antelope is a popular and affordable leather with a natural velvet texture. Consequently, varieties of antelope like Springbok is often used to produce types of suede leather.
Similarly, Kudu is a much more desirable species of antelope with skins that are occasionally used for antelope. However, the rich exterior of the skin is a treasured among enthusiasts.
Given the reduced number of predators, the South African government has issued a mandate to cull the growing Kudu population. Therefore, they’re legally hunted for their meat, horns, as well as their skin.
As they’re not farmed but hunted in the wild, the skin’s exterior also tends to feature natural scarring and scratches that result in unique hides. Consequently, Kudu is probably one the few exotic skins that has a relatively positive impact on the environment.
Carpincho & Peccary Pig Leathers
Although vastly different from the domestic swine, both Carpincho (or Capybara) and Peccary are usually referred to as pig leathers. Both are sourced from South America but are completely different in appearance.
For instance, the Carpincho is a small water mammal that looks more like a Castorid rodent than a pig. Meanwhile, the Peccary is a small boar-like pig that’s also hunted for its strong-tasting meat.
Additionally, both Carpincho and Peccary are more commonly used for gloves than shoes thanks to their supple structure. Indeed, they have a somewhat similar appearance but due to its smaller size, the Peccary is much finer with a more delicate texture.
Elephant Skin Leather
A variety of leather that is rife with ethical and legal concerns and controversies, elephant skin is unsurprisingly popular in a number of African countries.
Furthermore, genuine elephant leather is quite rare. Indeed, the majority of products advertised as such are often counterfeit cowhide embossed with an elephant leather effect.
While the trade of elephant leather is strongly regulated, it is not always illegal. In fact, elephant leather has been legal in both South Africa and Namibia since 2004. However, exporting it to other countries is strictly controlled with CITES permits.
Nevertheless, illegal elephant leather can find its way into Europe or the USA through illegal poaching and big game hunting.
Therefore, great care should be taken in purchasing elephant leather goods in Africa or from private sellers abroad. Meanwhile, the WWF strongly advises that they aren’t purchased at all.
What Is Cordovan Leather?
Horse leather has always been somewhat rare given that the trusty steed was historically associated with work rather than the slaughterhouse. Nevertheless, horse meat is actually considered a delicacy in places like France as long as it is properly labelled!
Typically, horse leather is referred to as “cordovan” and like “cordwainer“, its etymology is supposedly rooted to the Spanish town of Córdoba. However, the town was renowned for working with goat skin rather than horse.
In fact, the use of cordovan horse leather mostly originates from the United States. In the USA, it may not always been strictly perceived as an exotic skin. That said, its demand strongly exceeds the current supply. As a result, it’s a particularly expensive leather.
As mentioned earlier, horse meat is a French delicacy. Therefore, it’s not surprising to learn that the majority of skins are imported from France and occasionally Québec.
Cordovan is specifically sourced from either the two round areas below the flank’s skin of a heavy workhorse, which are known as the butt or shell. Shell cordovan is by far the most desirable due to its natural resistance and greasiness.
Kangaroo Skin Leather
An incredibly thin and naturally lightweight yet resistant leather, kangaroo is a very popular exotic leather. However, kangaroos are so commonplace in Australia that they’re not even farmed but hunted for both their hides and meat.
Given its unique characteristics, kangaroo leather is best known for motorcycle and sportswear. Thanks to its lightweight resistance and breathable properties, it’s an ideal choice for sports shoes as well as motorcycle suits.
However, kangaroo leather is somewhat rarer for dress shoes despite its resemblance to cowhide and affordability. This is likely because most kangaroo leather is chromium-tanned, which isn’t a particularly desirable treatment for premium shoes.
Ostrich Skin Leather
Celebrated for its extremely unique dotted grain, ostrich is an easily recognisable exotic leather. Nowadays, ostriches are farmed all over the world and varieties of Emu or Nandu are sometimes used too.
Often bred for their meat, feathers and eggs, leather is made from both their legs and bodies.
Firstly, the legs produce slender hides with narrow, horizontal ripples. Typically, the leg leather is used for accessories but can sometimes be found as ornamentation or upper facings on shoes.
Meanwhile, the body is prized for its aforementioned dotted pimples caused by the feathers’ roots that are often referred to as nubs. Depending on the ostrich’s age, the dots can greatly vary.
For instance, young ostriches will produce skins with pronounced and uniform nubs whereas older ones will appear more texture and irregular.
As these dots only appear on the centre of the skin, crafting items from ostrich leather can occasionally be somewhat wasteful. Alternatively, outer sections of the skin can be used to combine its smooth and textured characteristics for a unique finish.
Although reindeer, elk and deerskin are all quite common, Russian Reindeer refers to a specific and extraordinarily expensive leather.
On the 10th December 1786, a small Dutch cargo ship was returning from St Petersburg, Russia, with stocks of reindeer leather and hemp. Named the Die Frau Metta Catharina von Flensburg, she was caught in storm and sought refuge in the isolated Plymouth Sound.
However, she struck Drake’s Island and broke free of its anchor before presumably sinking somewhere off the Cornish coast. While the crew survived, the ship was all but forgotten for nearly 200 years.
In 1973, divers accidentally found the sunken wreck of the Metta Catharina when searching for a British Navy ship in Plymouth Sound. They discovered that while the hemp had deteriorated, the neatly-rolled leather was immersed in black mud, which preserved it for nearly two centuries.
As the seabed belonged to the Duchy of Cornwall, Prince Charles technically owned the rights to the salvage. However, he chose to waive these rights for the leather to be sold to pay for further deep-sea searches.
Russian leather from this era was highly regarded as it was renowned for being durable and insect repellent. It featured a rich aroma produced by the tanning process, which involves soaking in willow bark pits before being intensively curried with birch bark oil.
Similarly, the Russian leather often featured distinctive cross-hatching along the skin. This would have been caused by a wooden roller while it was still damp to help soak in the birch bark oil.
Indeed a rare and one-of-a-kind leather, the leather is highly desirable by enthusiasts. Today, it is often referred to as Russian Reindeer or Metta Catharina leather despite some calf and cowhide also being found in the wreckage.
Other Mammal Leathers
- Beaver Tail: Protected since 1924, beaver tail used to be an inexpensive alternative to crocodile.
- Camel: An affordable but not overly desirable leather similar to Nubuck.
- Donkey: In very little demand partly due to an illegal trade in Asia, donkey is a very rustic leather.
- Giraffe: A rare but uncontrolled and threatened leather with a growing demand.
- Hippo: Similar to elephant in appearance but with a clay-like grain and more visible scarring.
- Mountain Ram: Also known as the bighorn sheep, the mountain ram offers a unique pebble leather.
- Pangolin: An armoured mammal with keratin scales, hunting them is strictly prohibited by CITE.
- Seal & Walrus: Rare for shoes and often used for snow boots but banned by the EU since 2010.
Exotic Sea & Fish Skins
Probably one of the least popular and most challenging varieties of exotic leather, sea skins are derived from fish and other water-dwelling creatures. The practice of fish leather originates from Siberia and thanks to the growth of fish farming, the skins has become much more affordable and sustainable.
Overall, they’re particularly difficult to use effectively as the leather can rarely be shined well. Furthermore, some varieties of fish leathers may lose their scales over time either by age of scuffing, which is impossible to repair.
However, they often present a unique approach to leather with a glassy and beady appearance. Surprisingly, their unique fibre structure renders it far stronger than conventional leather and requires a very brief tanning process.
There are many varieties of fish that can be used to produce leather and each have unique scale structures, resulting in a wide selection of finishes. Similarly, the species of fish can be quite small so they are limited to facings or ornamentation for shoes.
In this section, we’ll be covering the following varieties of fish leather:
Salmon Skin As Leather
Thin and lightweight, salmon is a niche skin that’s growing in popularity. Thanks to a growth in salmon farming, the skins are in abundant supply and relatively affordable. Therefore, they present themselves more as a sustainable rather than exotic choice of leather.
While salmon hides are relatively small, they can occasionally be large enough for shoes or at their ornamentation and facing. Furthermore, salmon skins are vegetable tanned,which produces a texture crust that is usually ironed flat.
Shark Skin As Leather
Not to be confused with the fabric of the same name, shark skin is probably the most popular fish leather. Shark leather consists of microscopic scales, which results in a rippled or pebbled grain. It’s also much thicker and durable when compared to other reptile and fish skins.
In its earlier use, shark skin was so coarse that it was often employed as an alternative to sand paper. However, it develops a rich and supple handfeel when heavily oiled. Nevertheless, this requires a significant time investment to achieve.
While there are some exceptions, most common shark varieties aren’t endangered nor require CITES protection. Indeed, some are even farmed, which ensures unblemished hides. That said, hunted sharks and their natural scarring is prized among certain collectors.
A particularly famous variety of shark skin is Shagreen, which can also be made from sting ray, horse, or even wild Asian onager. First mastered by the Japanese in the 2nd Century, it became fashionable in France under Louis XV.
Interestingly, its English name is derived from the French, “chagrin”. This actually comes from the Turkish “sağrı” for “horse rump”. Due to its rough texture and role it played in a Balzac novel, “chagrin” is now used to describe “anxiety” or “woe” in modern French.
Sting Ray Skin As Leather
Sting Ray is a rare and difficult leather to handle as its surface is as hard as stone, which makes it challenging to cut. However, it’s a celebrated skin largely due to the way its pearls react when sanded.
When buffed, the pearls become glossy and are reminiscent of assorted diamonds or glass stones. By selectively sanding down certain areas, the tanners can create unique geometric shapes and patterns for a unique finish.
In some cases, sting rays can also have spines, which feature larger pearl peaks. These are also polished in a way that renders them something of a centre-piece of the skin for added visual interest.
Otherwise, Atlantic Sting Ray is an alternative albeit rare species that has a completely different structure. Instead, it has surface that shares more of a resemblance to conventional leather with a somewhat vintage texture.
Other Fish Skins For Leather
- Common Eel: A rare and scaleless fish that features only a rippled central scar.
- Moray Eel: Unlike the common eel, moray eels have a grainy scale structure.
- Pirarucu: A very large Amazonian fish with very big, defined scales.
- Sturgeon: With its rustic appearance, its textured surface is reminiscent of old wood.
- Tilapia: A large fish with seashell-shaped scales.
Why Buy Exotic Skin Shoes?
Given the rich varieties available, there’s no single reason why you should or shouldn’t invest in exotic skins. Generally, people will choose to opt for certain exotic skins for either a unique aesthetic or particular natural characteristics.
For instance, we’ve already explained the benefits of certain leathers like fish and kangaroo for their lightweight durability. Alternatively, other skins like kudu or salmon are surprisingly sustainable and present themselves as alternative and even ethical leathers.
Not every exotic skin will be appreciated by everyone. Indeed, there are many varieties that are even met with apprehension or discomfort purely on principle. Similarly, exotic skins have historically suffered from a poor reputation as they are often used as a way to flaunt wealth.
In writing the above guide, we’ve been very careful not to voice our own opinions for or against exotic skins. Instead, we’ve tried to remain as objective as possible while providing facts on any eventual legal issues prospective buyers may face.
We only request that you endeavour to be responsable and mindful when seeking a particular exotic skin. Being aware of what we buy can go a long way, which can be said when purchasing any leather in general.
Finally, we have the right to know how skins were sourced when in the privileged position of ordering bespoke or custom shoes. In almost all cases, professional shoemakers will be proud to tell you! After all, they will unlikely put their businesses at risk by trading with unscrupulous tanners.
Now that you have read about the best shoe brands that work with exotic skin, feel free to explore our other related guides:
- Best Italian Shoes To Buy Online
- Top 10 French Shoes To Buy Online
- Best English Shoemakers & Brands
- Most Comfortable Dress Shoes For Men
- Bespoke Unit Shoe Homepage
"Wow, I learned a lot to say the least! I was just expecting a slideshow! This guide is an incredible introduction to exotic skin."Rating: 5.0 ★★★★★