Although vermouth is an exceedingly popular spirit, most people don’t even realise that they’re drinking it. Usually, it’s simply referred to as Martini, which is first a brand of vermouth as well as a cocktail that contains it. However, martini is now so iconic that it’s often superseded vermouth in everyday vernacular.

In this guide, you will learn all about vermouth beyond just martini as well as how it tastes, different ways of drinking it, and the best brands to buy:

Simply use the links above to jump ahead or scroll down to read out entire detailed guide.

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What Is Vermouth?

Martini & Rossi Rosso Sweet Martini WideVermouth is a particularly fascinating Italian beverage with a German-inspired French name. Indeed, it is named after the French pronunciation of wormwood in German, which is “Wermut”.

Historically, vermouth was predominantly made in the Italian Piedmont region. Given that this neighbours with France, it also has an intriguing French heritage too.

The most famous vermouth is unquestionably Martini, which shares its name with a celebrated gin-based cocktail. However, there is some doubt as to whether it was named after the brand or its founder.

Instead, “Martini” may be a corruption of the California town Martinez where the cocktail was supposedly invented in the 1860s. Furthermore, evidence supports this particularly theory in that it was named the “Martinez Cocktail” as early as 1887 in an early mixology book, which is still on sale today!

Finally, vermouth isn’t actually an alcoholic spirit but a wine. Technically speaking, it is a fortified wine that has been strengthened by adding a neutral spirit usually been distilled from grapes.

The History Of Vermouth

Casa Martini & Rossi Headquarters

Casa Martini & Rossi

Like akvavit and gin or jenever, vermouth first started as a medicinal remedy. Indeed, the fortifying of wine and adding herbs has been practised by both the Ancient Chinese and Indians since 1,000 BC. Additionally, Hippocrates would produce his own wormwood iteration as early as 400 BC!

In this particular instance, the name plays a fundamental role as Germany had been using wormwood as an ingredient in fortified wine since the 16th Century. Additionally, wormwood is one of the principle ingredients of absinthe. However, this wasn’t produced until the late 18th Century.

Antonio Benedetto Carpano

Antonio Benedetto Carpano

At some point during the 16th Century, an Italian merchant called Jeronimo Ruscelli had started producing his own “Wermut Wein” with additional botanicals. This caught the interest of other producers in South-Eastern France, which began creating their own varieties.

During this period, the Duchy of Savoy transferred the capital from Chambéry, France, to Torino in the Piedmont region. Upon his arrival, the court sampled the local delicacies and discovered the fortified wine.

Consequently, it quickly spread to other courts such as Bavaria where Wermut Wein was already popular as described above.

In 1786, another Italian merchant by the name of Antonio Benedetto Carpano introduced a sweet vermouth to Torino. By this time, wormwood wine was being enjoyed in England and was being commonly referred to as “Vermouth” since it arrived via the French.

After the turn of the 19th Century, French herbalist Joseph Noilly started producing a pale and dry vermouth. Beginning in his hometown of Lyon, he soon moved to the coastal town of Marseillan when he realised during shipping that the salty air improved the flavour in the barrels.

The Advent Of The Cocktail

Martini & Rossi Heritage PartyTowards the end of the 18th Century, vermouth was rarely used medicinally and was instead often enjoyed as an aperitif. However, it was during the mid-19th Century that it’s popularity boomed with the increasing popularity of cocktails.

Until the dawn of the 20th Century, vermouth was frequently being used as a mixer for a variety of new and exciting cocktails. For instance, the aforementioned martini was being mixed since the 1860s. Meanwhile, the Manhattan was invented at some point during the 1880s.

By the mid-20th Century, martini consumed neat as an aperitif was rare. Instead, it was almost only consumed in cocktails. It was during this time that Martini & Rosso drove aggressive marketing campaigns and sought to align themselves with the stars of the era.

While Hemingway and Bogart with both excellent influencers of period, it was James Bond that proved to be the most successful marketing personality. Furthermore, the brand was heavily involved in motor sports and continues to sponsor automobile racing to this day.

Gin Boom’s Influence On Vermouth

Giulio Cocchi Bava Brothers Owners

Bava Brothers, Cocchi Owners

Thanks to the recent gin boom of the early 21st Century, there has been growing interest in vermouth with new artisanal brands being developed all over the world.

In response, Piedmont’s vermouth producers have vigorously campaigned for certification that their fortified wines are officially recognised. One of the most notable campaigners was Robert Brava, owner of Cocchi.

Consequently, producers succeeded in obtaining a “Vermouth di Torino” Indicazione Geografica in 2017 from the Italy’s Ministry of Agriculture. Meanwhile, Chambéry in France has been recognised thanks to an Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée for its own vermouth.

How Vermouth Is Made

Noilly Prat Vermouth Barrels

Noilly Prat Cellar

Vermouth usually begins as a low-alcohol white wine produced from grapes such as Clairette blanche, Catarratto, Trebbiano, Blanchetta Trevigiana, and Piquepoul. The base wine is then briefly aged before being a specific amount of sugar syrup is added.

Dolin Distillery Alembic

Dolin Distillery Alembic

Afterwards, the wine is then fortified with a neutral grape-based alcoholic spirit. Botanicals are then added to large barrels, which are then filled with the fortified wine. These botanicals consist of various herbs and spices including cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and juniper.

Although wormwood was historically a main ingredient, its heavily regulated today so its overall use its limited. Nevertheless, it is required that at least one herb from the same Artemisia family is used in the production.

The ingredients are then left to steep or macerate. During this, the barrels may be stirred or agitated over several weeks. Afterwards, the vermouth may be extracted via pressing or distillation. That said, the latter can be particularly rare.

Once completed, the wine must account for at least 75% of the resulting product.

Typical Alcohol Volume Percentage

As a fortified beverage, the alcohol percentage is usually higher than typical wine. Therefore, you can expect concentrations that range from 16 to 18% ABV. In the EU, the absolutely minimum can actually be 14.5% whereas it cannot be stronger than 22%.

Does Vermouth Go Bad?

Thanks to the fortification process, vermouth doesn’t sour as quickly as typical white wine. However, vermouth may last between one and three months after being opened. Vermouth’s expiration can actually be slowed down somewhat by storing it in the fridge.

Indeed, this results in quite a number of cocktails over a few weeks. Nevertheless, vermouth is excellent for cooking and goes remarkably well in a risotto.

Different Vermouth Types & How They Taste

Above describes the general process of producing a dry white vermouth. However, there are a number of sweet or red varieties too that have been developed. Consequently, their production can vary depending on the desired result.

What Are Sweet & Dry Vermouth?

Dolin Dry Vermouth Bottles In Machine

Dolin Dry Vermouth

Firstly, the main difference between most vermouths is whether it is considered sweet or dry. Much like Champagne, this depends on the amount of sugar syrup added, which takes place just being being fortified with the neutral spirit.

However, this also has an effect on the resulting alcohol percentage as you’ll see below:

  • Extra Dry: <30 grams / litre and 15< % ABV
  • Dry: 30 – 50 grams / litre and 16< % ABV
  • Semi-Dry: 50 – 90 grams / litre
  • Semi-Sweet: 90 – 130 grams / litre
  • Sweet: 130+ grams / litre

Needless to say, the amount of sugar added has a profound effect on the resulting flavour and how it’s best consumed in a cocktail or otherwise.

What Is The Difference Between White & Red Vermouth?

Cinzano Rosso Sweet VermouthYou may have noticed that there are a variety of different vermouth colours available to buy. While the overall process to produce these are similar, they may have experienced some slight variations in their production. Generally, most vermouth is still quite vinous but their differences can be striking.

For instance, one of the most common types of vermouth is red or Rosso. This colour is often the result of adding red wine but can also be caused by certain botanicals as well as caramel colouring. Compared to other varieties, it’s usually quite unctuous with a sweet, spicy, and herbal flavour profile.

Conversely, a white, blanc or Bianco vermouth will only use white wine as the base. It tends to be much lighter and sweeter than its red counterpart with more floral and vanilla notes on the palate.

Although slightly similar in appearance, a Bianco shouldn’t be confused with a “dry” vermouth, which as the name suggests, is tart and lacking in sugar as described above.

Meanwhile, Rosé or Rosato vermouth is rarer but will usually use a combination of red and white wine for the initial base. Although a relatively newer variety, it’s growing in popularity as it tends to offer a combination of both flavours.

How To Serve & Drink Vermouth

As described in detail above, vermouth is most commonly consumed as a cocktail mixer. However, we also explained that it was originally straight. In some parts of France and Italy, this is still the case even if it isn’t as common as it used to be.

When taking vermouth neat, it’s served chilled and usually with ice or a chilled glass at the very least. Often, a citrus twist can be added to improve the flavour. If this is desired, lemon is best suited to white blends while orange will complement darker vermouths.

Nevertheless, many vermouths made today are primarily produced for cocktails. Therefore, bottom-shelf blends destined for cocktails may not be particularly pleasant. Instead, opt for premium vermouth if you’re looking to enjoy it neat.

Popular Vermouth Cocktail Recipes

Mixing Martini CocktailAs you probably already know, vermouth is about as popular as gin or vodka when it comes to cocktails. Yet, each variety of vermouth has its own characteristics that are better suited to certain cocktails.

Below, we’ll briefly look at a few celebrated vermouth cocktails and how the fortified wine plays a role.

Negroni

Named after French general Pascal Olivier Count de Negroni, this historically cocktail was supposedly invented in a Florence café in 1919. Typically, it consists of equal parts gin, sweet red vermouth, and Campari.

Manhattan

One of the oldest vermouth cocktails, the Manhattan was first recorded in the 1880s but may even predate this by several decades. Five parts of rye whisky are combined with two parts of sweet rosso vermouth and a dash of bitters. This is then stirred over ice and strained into a chilled glass before adding garnish.

Martini

As mentioned above, the martini is another heritage vermouth cocktail. Today, the proportions tend to be six parts gin and one part vermouth. However, it started as a 2:1 ratio before dropping to 4:1 by the 1940s.

Martinis today are typically dry but they can be made with sweet vermouth. Similarly, bitters can be added or even a dash of olive brine, which is called a Dirty Martini.

Interestingly, most martini variants that use the name or “tini” suffix don’t always feature vermouth. For instance, an appletini substitutes the vermouth for apple sour.

Vodka Martini

Lastly, we would be remiss to overlook the iconic 007 drink. Although his was traditionally a combination of gin, vodka, and Kina Lillet, the films popularised the simple marriage of vodka and vermouth.

Bear in mind that purists claim that a martini should never be stirred to ensure that the molecules are properly aligned in the glass. Traditionally, a shaken martini is actually called a “Bradford”. Remember this to score extra points with your bartender if you must absolutely have it that way!

Vermouth Substitutes & Similar Drinks

Dubonnet Aperitif Advertisement

Dubonnet Aperitif Advertisement

Interestingly, there are a number of similar fortified wines that can be used instead of vermouth to produce different effects. For instance, we already noted Kina Lillet that was originally used in James Bond’s Vesper cocktail.

In fact, Lillet comes from a family of fortified wines known as quinquinas, which are traditionally made using cinchona bark to produce quinine. Historically, this was produced as a treatment for malaria and was often added to drinks as an alternative to medication for soldiers stationed abroad.

In fact, quinine is one of the main ingredients of tonic water and the gin and tonic was actually the British solution to mask its bitterness.

Anyway, quinquina is a family of fortified wines that includes both Lillet and Dubonnet. Both of these are lesser-known but appreciated drinks that are often compared and even mistaken with vermouth on occasion.

Are There Health Benefits To Drinking Vermouth?

Finishing Martini CocktailOriginally, vermouth was produced as a medicinal remedy as described earlier in this guide. When Hippocrates made his own, he claimed that it aided with jaundice and soothed menstrual pains.

Similarly, it has been claimed that vermouth can aid in digestion, reduce stress, reduce inflammations, and protect the immune system.

While there is some truth in some of this, its benefits were largely due to the botanicals. One of the main ingredients that was beneficial was actually the wormwood, which is known to help with infections, Crohn’s dises, and dyspepsia.

However, wormwood is heavily regulated even if it actually contains very little Thujone compared to other herbs such as sage. Nevertheless, the reduced quantity in vermouth means that it probably offers few health benefits when consumed.

Gluten, Carbs, & Calories In Vermouth

Given that wine is gluten-free, vermouth is absolutely fine for people with a sensitivity to it or people with celiac disease.

However, vermouth can be very high in sugar depending on the variety. Typically, 88 ml (3 Oz) of dry vermouth will contain well over 130 calories. Therefore, sweeter vermouth may be significantly more.

Furthermore, 3% of vermouth’s composition is carbohydrates, which comes to over 10g in the quantity listed above.

Finally, also bear in mind that vermouth is often accompanied by other ingredients in a cocktail too!

Where To Buy Vermouth

Row Of Extra Dry Martini Vermouth BottlesThanks to Martini’s fame, vermouth is relatively easy to find in just about every convenience store or supermarket. However, if you’re looking for a specific style or variety of vermouth, you may struggle in most stores.

We’ve also found that a lot of online retailers don’t actually stock much vermouth. For instance, we regularly use Reserve Bar but they don’t appear to have any on their site, sadly.

Meanwhile, Drizly actually sells quite a number of different brands thanks to their partnerships with local merchants. Therefore, you’ll find all the vermouth brands listed below through their website if you’re looking to acquire some.

Top 10 Best Vermouth Brands

As mentioned above, we will now cover the top 10 best vermouth brands that you can buy online:

  1. Carpano Antica Formula Vermouth
  2. Dolin Dry Vermouth
  3. Noilly Prat Extra Dry Vermouth
  4. Martini & Rossi Riserva Speciale Ambrato Vermouth
  5. Cocchi Vermouth Di Torino
  6. Martini & Rossi Extra Dry Vermouth
  7. Carpano Punt E Mes
  8. Ransom Dry Vermouth
  9. Cinzano Rosso Sweet Vermouth
  10. Martini & Rossi Rosso Sweet Vermouth

Scroll down to see them all or jump ahead using the links above.

1. Carpano Antica Formula Vermouth

Carpano Antica Formula Vermouth
  • Country of Origin: Italy
  • Distillery: Fratelli Branca Distillerie
  • Region: Milan, Lombardy
  • Age: N/A
  • Casking: N/A
  • ABV: 16.5%
  • Pricing:
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Although distilled today by Branca in Milan, Carpano is still in production today and seeks to replicate the same experience as in 1786. As a result, the Antica Formula is a rich and unctuous vermouth with balanced vanilla notes.

Ideal for sipping neat, the Antica Formula is fantastic when mixed into a Manhattan or even a Negroni cocktail.

2. Dolin Dry Vermouth

Dolin Dry Vermouth
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Dolin is based in the Alpine town of Chambéry, just a skip over the border into Alpine France. Not only does this region have a strong vermouth heritage but it also enjoys a local Appellation, which protects its identity and regulates local production.

Being produced in small batches using only local botanicals, Dolin has a subtler and drier mouthfeel. Overall, it offers a citrus palate with refreshing menthol and balsamic notes with a herbal finish.

Consequently, Dolin is best served chilled in a martini cocktail.

3. Noilly Prat Extra Dry Vermouth

Noilly Prat Original Dry Vermouth
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In 2015, Noilly-Prat became James Bond’s official vermouth when it made an appearance in Skyfall. As such, it has quickly garnered a reputation and is enjoying renewed fame. However, Noilly prat is actually one of the oldest active vermouth producers and has been operating since 1815.

We’re particularly fond of the extra dry vermouth, which features a herbal and floral aroma. Its white wine palate with a rich and tart mouthfeel is the perfect addition to a classic martini cocktail.

4. Martini & Rossi Riserva Speciale Ambrato Vermouth

Martini & Rossi Riserva Speciale Ambrato Vermouth Cocktails
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A celebrated brand that is essentially synonymous with vermouth, Martini & Rossi will actually be featured a number of times in this guide. We’re especially keen on the Riserva Speciale Ambrato vermouth, which is a recent addition to their repertoire.

Made with a range of local and exotic botanicals, this particularly blend pays hommage to the brand’s original recipes. It features a distinctive chamomile note, which are followed by eucalyptus and menthol before a floral finish. We love sipping this one neat with a twist of lemon. However, it’s a killer mixer too.

5. Cocchi Vermouth Di Torino

Cocchi Vermouth Di Torino
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120 years after its foundation, Giulio Cocchi continues to remain loyal to its original recipe. Today, the brand is now operated by the Brava brothers who are so passionate for Piedmont’s heritage that they campaigned for the Indicazione Geografica.

Rich in flavour, this vermouth features a herbal and citrus aroma profile with a bitter sweet twist. Meanwhile, the palate is dominated by cocoa and blood range with a long balsamic and musky finish. As a result, it’s excellent on the rocks a twist of sanguine orange. Alternatively, consider it for your next negroni.

6. Martini & Rossi Extra Dry Vermouth

Martini & Rossi Extra Dry Vermouth
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Martini & Rossi released their Extra Dry blend on New Year’s Day at the dawn of the 20th Century in 1900. Indeed, it went on to be one of the most iconic vermouths that continues to dominate the market.

An affordable and budget friendly choice, it’s usually the first choice in a vodka martini. However, be sure to stir it in order to benefit from its tart aromatic flavours and sharp citrus finish.

7. Carpano Punt E Mes

Carpano Punt e Mes Vermouth
  • Country of Origin: Italy
  • Distillery: Fratelli Branca Distillerie
  • Region: Milan, Lombardy
  • Age: N/A
  • Casking: N/A
  • ABV: 16%
  • Pricing:
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A later creation by Carpano from 1870, “Punt e Mes” means “point and a half”, which refers to its blend of one point of bitterness with half a point of sweetness. Legend has it that if you raise your thumb at a barman in Italian and trace a line upwards, they’ll know to fetch you a glass of this.

An intriguing substitute for conventional Rosso vermouth, it has a distinctive flavour that is somewhat reminiscent of Campari while still retaining its vermouth character. Consider trying it as part of a Manhattan and you’ll see what we mean.

8. Ransom Dry Vermouth

Ransom Dry Vermouth
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Ransom is an independent American distillery that was founded by Tad Seestedt in 1997. Given the complete change in landscape, we can expect a twist on the traditional approach.

For instance, the base wine consists of white varieties such as Auxerrois, Albarino, Riesling, Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer, and Muscat. Most of these grapes are actually native to Alsace in Northern France, which is considerably different to Piedmont, Italy.

Similarly, the botanical infusion consists of a number organic ingredients including chamomile, verbana, star anise, arch angel root, burdock root, and many more. Its overall bittersweet flavour profile is reminiscent of absinthe with a warm spice cabinet heart, and a bitter sweet citrus finish.

9. Cinzano Rosso Sweet Vermouth

Cinzano Rosso Sweet Vermouth
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Not too long ago after it was acquired by Campari, Cinzano released its 1757 Vermouth di Torino range that pays hommage to the brand’s original recipes. These small batch blends are Indicazione Geografica and produce bold flavours.

Our favourite is the Rosso, which offers complex notes of spices such as cloves and nutmeg as well roots including liquorice. It finishes with a lingering floral note of vanilla, which is a pleasure to enjoy neat with a twist of orange.

10. Martini & Rossi Rosso Sweet Vermouth

Martini & Rossi Rosso Sweet Martini Bottle
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While the Extra Dry is iconic, Martini’s Rosso blend is unquestionably the most famous of its vermouths. It features a whopping 40 different botanicals that create an overall sweet flavour with a dominant citrus accord.

Produced since 1863, it’s a wonderful aperitif that can be enjoyed neat. However, it’s most famous for being enjoyed in a Manhattan or a Negroni.

What Next?

Now that you have learned all about vermouth, why don’t you check out some of our related spirit guides?

Vermouth Guide
Reviewed by Nash C., on .
"Really rich on detail! Great guide and learned a lot. This must have taken days to write!"
Rating: 5.0 ★★★★★

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